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Scanning - The scanner article

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    Posted: 10 March 2014 at 23:55
This article seeks to inform about the digitising of analogue film, it discusses the issues involved, different approaches available and the hardware and software available.

This is a living document - constructive corrections, contributions and additions are very welcome.
Simply post your comments and contributions below or PM them to me if you prefer.

The article is split into a number of sections:

Methods of digitising Negatives and Slides
Including Scanning, Copying, Resolution for Scanners, Sizes of resultant scans, Types of connection, Dynamic Range, Colour Depth, Focusing, Scratch removal, Bulk Scanning and Colour Casts

Software and Hardware
Including Film Scanners, Flatbeds, Slide Copier attanchments, Macro lens setups, Dedicated devices, Scanner comparisons and Observations

The Cheap options: Comparison of low end film scanners and flatbeds with Camera copies
Comparing output from a Minolta Dimage Dual Scan II with an Epson Perfection v350 and Full-frame digital camera with macro lens

A lot of info is available on the web about scanning - The following links may make for useful background reading:
Comparison of Dimage scanners
Ken Rockwell on scanners
Norman Koren on scanners
Scantips basics – dynamic range and colour depth
Scanner reviews from Imaging Resource
e-photozine film scanner reviews
Large format photography scanner comparisons
Scandig scanner info in German, English, French, Spanish and Italian
Scanner tests from Scandig in German, English, French, Spanish and Italian
Shutterbug Magazine Scanner and Printer reviews
Luminous Landscape article on copying film via a camera (behind firewall) - Downloadable pdf containing extended version (outside firewall)
The Epson V850 Pro Scanner in Context (comparison with legacy scanners) by Mark Segal at Luminous Landscape

Edited by Bob J - 09 January 2016 at 15:01
 



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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 March 2014 at 23:55
Digitising Negatives and slides

Scanning

Scanners work by sampling an image via a row of photo sites which read an image one ‘row’ at a time. The row of photo sites can move over the target, or the can be moved relative to the target. Scanners are usually lit from the front for reflective material (prints/documents), but transparent materials such as negatives or slides need to be lit from behind to give them adequate illumination.

As it works one line at a time, scanning is relatively slow, but can give very high quality results: compared to a normal Bayer camera sensor there is no interpolation as scanners typically have a row of photo sites for each colour, or alter the emitted light to get three separate samples.

Copying

Compared to scanning, copying is a relatively instantaneous process which involves projecting an entire image on an imaging sensor with a Bayer filter array. Copying can be achieved with a macro lens on a camera, a dedicated slide/negative copier for a camera, or via a unit which is effectively a small captive camera.

Resolution for scanners

Scanner resolution is usually quoted in ppi (pixels per inch) and is determined by the number of photo sites across the row in one direction and the distance that they are capable of being moved accurately relative to the target in the other. This means that resolution is fixed in one direction (typically the width) but can be varied in the other; for this reason resolution in the longer direction is normally quoted as a higher figure: beware of this as the lower figure will be likely to be the 'true' resolution. Also be wary of interpolation as this will get you bigger file sizes but not greater quality.

Originally posted by MiPr MiPr wrote:

...may I add a note about the resolution of scanners?

Generally it's all bulls... far from being true. For example CanoScan 9000f, which is advertised as being able to work at 9600 PPI in reality achieves ... 1700 PPI (the "sweet spot" being when it's set to 4800 PPI). Same thing is for all scanners, including dedicated film scanners although they usually have much better BTRR (bulls... to reality ratio ).


Sizes of resultant scans

Typical resolutions for film scanners are 2820, 3200, 4000, 4800 and 5400, although some older models may only be 1200ppi. Because the typical 35mm negative is 24x36mm, the sizes of the output files are as follows:



Note that the file size generated from scans can be quite large – a DNG RAW file from a 2820 single pass colour scan can be over 28MB.

It used to be said that the detail in a film negative was roughly equivalent to a 14MP sensor, which would fit in with the old maxim that you could blow up a 35mm negative to 8x10 quite comfortably.

Types of connection

The type of connection affects speed of scanning.

    Parallel ports used to be available on PCs as a way of connecting peripherals like printers and scanners; no longer common and rather slow. A parallel connection may require the scanner to be connected at boot-up.

    SCSI connections are fast, but require a card to be fitted – the ones likely to be most compatible can also be quite expensive. A SCSI connection may also require the scanner to be connected at boot-up.

    USB 1 is plug and play, is compatible with most modern PCs/Macs, is easy to use, but slow in comparison to SCSI, Firewire and USB in higher versions.

    Firewire is also plug and play, is fairly widely available and a little bit faster than USB 2.

    USB 2 is plug and play, is available on most desktops and laptops and is pretty fast (so much so that you don’t see a lot of USB 3 scanners).


Dynamic range

Dynamic range is an important consideration for any photographic device; for scanners this tends to be expressed as DMAX, although more properly we should be looking at DRANGE (DMAX minus DMIN). The higher the quoted figure for DMAX, the more shadow and highlight detail the scanner should be able to bring out from a single scan. Bear in mind that most negatives will be fine with a DRANGE of around 2.8, which is covered by most scanners. Even slide film should not need much more than 3.2, although some ‘difficult’ slides might need more. There is a lot of cynicism regarding manufacturers DMAX figures and at some points DMAX may have been used in a similar way to megapixels – more does not necessarily give you better results.

Ways of increasing Dynamic range

The dynamic range of the image can be increased by taking multiple exposures and merging them to produce an HDR picture. In a similar way a scanner can do multiple passes that will capture shadow and highlight details. In some cases the original controlling software allows you to perform these multiple exposures, but third-party applications such as VuScan and Silverfast may enable multiple exposures even if the original software does not support it. The key attribute of a scanner here is that it should be able to reposition and control the movement during the scan well enough to allow accurate registration.

Colour depth

RGB JPGs are typically 24 bit – 8 bits for each of the component colours (256 possible values apiece) giving over 16 million colours in all – more than can be perceived by the human eye. Scanners can gather far more information about colour transitions in 36 bit (12 bits per channel) or 48 bit (16 bits per channel). In converting to a printable or viewable format, a lot of this information will be discarded, but having more information available gives some choice about what information we discard – so more is good, but comes at a price (file size) and may not be able to be perceived in the final output.

Focusing

Fixed focus

Many scanners, particularly flatbeds, rely on the fact that the target is flat and at a known distance from the sensor. Differing thicknesses of mounts for slides and even curl in film may affect critical focus.

Autofocus

Many, but not all, dedicated film scanners have an autofocus feature which will assess focus prior to a scan; by default, the autofocus target is usually the centre of the frame/negative (which is where any curl is likely to be most pronounced), but some scanners may allow choice of focus point or manual adjustment of focus via software (this is the sort of feature that may only be available using the original software).

Manual focus

Some top-flight flatbed scanners feature adjustments for focus via feet on the negative/slide holders. For scanners that do not offer this feature it may be possible to substitute third party holders that do, or to shim existing holder to get the desired levels of focus. Getting accurate manual focus in this way can be laborious.

Scratch removal

Negatives and slides are small and tend to attract dust and scratches which are then magnified in the scanning/enlarging process; good practice in handling and preparing negatives may minimise problems, but any small scratches and dust will still show up in output images and may require extensive ‘spotting’ during post-processing.

Automatic scratch removal works on the principle of finding out what dust and scratches are present during one scanning pass and removing those from the eventual output through a subtraction process. This is done by scanning the film with an infra-red light source which will pass straight through the image dyes on a negative or slide as if they were transparent, but will be absorbed by scratches and dust. There are a number of variants on this technique one of the best regarded of which has been ‘Digital ICE’. If you do lots of colour work having a scanner which can do an infrared pass is likely to save you lots of time.

Where automatic scratch removal doesn’t work

Unfortunately, while the dyes used in colour processes are invisible to IR light, the silver grain of most black and white films, and the cyan dye used in Kodachrome, are not - so scratch removal will not work on typical home process B&W films. Various manufacturers have managed to get their systems to work on Kodachrome, but there may still be issues. C41 process B&W films where the silver salts are replaced during processing by dyes, should be able to use digital ICE, but you are likely to have problems with anything that you can develop at home.

Bulk scanning

Digitising an entire archive of negatives and slides is a big job and borders on the impractical: Scanning in bulk gives you relatively little opportunity to bring out the best in each negative. Scanning in ‘RAW’ mode, or with multiple exposure passes may give a fair amount of elbow room for later work without having to re-scan, but this is likely to increase scan times.

For most film scanners, ‘bulk’ means a strip of six 35mm negatives or of four slides in mounts (less if dealing with medium format); even then a film scanner needs a motor of some kind to drive successive frames past the imaging sensor, or requires a flatbed with a large film scanning area and a suitable negative holder. If you are dealing with APS negatives, you can get attachments for some film scanners that allow scanning of an entire roll at a time, but the adapters are neither common nor cheap.

Colour casts

The film base for colour negatives tends to be an orange-yellow which can make getting a good colour profile problematical. Software may allow you to specify the producer of the film, for which it will make a specific compensation.




Edited by Bob J - 11 March 2014 at 15:00
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 March 2014 at 23:55
Software

Proprietary software

The software that was supplied with a scanner originally will function well, but is effectively frozen in time; while some ten year old film scanners are as good as anything produced today, the same cannot be said for their software, which may even have problems running on the latest versions of popular operating systems.

VueScan

VueScan offers a common software interface for just about any scanner ever made, and it will generally overcome any problems with drivers not working on newer versions of operating systems. It may even offer multiple exposure features where these were not available in the original software. Three versions are available: a demo version which produces a scan spotted with dollar signs (which at least can confirm that the scanner works and gives an idea of quality available); a standard licence that gives free updates for up to a year and the ‘Pro’ version which gives you updates for life and enables you to take RAW scans.

Silverfast

Silverfast also works on just about any scanner, and supports multi exposure and RAW. Although it is available as stand-alone software, it is bundled with the Plustek scanners and has similar features and as good a reputation as VueScan.

RAW scans

In the same way as a RAW file gives a digital negative that gives the opportunity to bring out certain details at a later time, a RAW scan acts as a digital negative that can either produce an output JPG by being run through the scanning software to produce a JPG or TIFF without the need for a re-scan, or can be dealt with directly by RAW converters or PP software.

Equipment

Film scanners

35mm

The golden age of the 35mm scanner covered that time when the possibilities of digitized photographs were opening up, but before film cameras stopped being produced en-masse. The advent of affordable digital SLRs killed off most of the breed and when KM stopped production, no one really tried to fill the void for affordable desktop film scanners. One affordable and commonly available brand (in the UK) is Plustek, which offers high resolution and digital ICE, but no AF and no motorized negative handling.

APS

Many 35mm film scanners offered optional APS attachments that allow you to pop in an APS cassette and then scan whatever negatives are on the processed roll; however these attachments are neither common nor cheap. An exception is the Canon dedicated film scanners which may have been supplied with APS attachments as part of the original bundle.

Medium format

Dedicated film scanners capable of handling medium format film are expensive. Plustek have introduced a high end film scanner capable of handling 135 and 120 film (up to 6x12cm) with motorized film advance in recent times.

Flatbeds

Film scanning capable flatbeds can offer very high resolutions, but scope for focusing is limited. A flatbed may well be able to cater for medium-format film, but this capability will depend on the size of the back-illuminated panel in the lid. High end flatbeds from Epson and Canon get good write-ups, with the high end Epson being capable of scanning twenty-four 35mm exposures at a time on its large film holder. Care needs to be taken that platen glass is clean and dust-free.

Copying

Slide copier attachments

Slide copier attachments were available from the 1970s and often featured a zoom to allow you to crop in on part of a negative. Quality is very much reliant of the quality of the optics included and older designs may have been intended for use on full-frame cameras (so it might be difficult to get a capture of the whole of the 35mm frame with an APS-C camera).

Macro lens setups

Macro lenses and bellows may also be capable of accepting slide-copier attachments – the advantage here is that macro lenses are likely to be very good quality. Macro lenses may also be used on a copying stand to photograph negatives with back illumination supplied by a remote flashgun (see below). Care needs to be taken to ensure that the target is parallel to the camera sensor, but reasonable quality results can be produced and large numbers of copies can be done in one session. Copying with a macro lens also offers a way of digitizing medium format negatives at a reasonable cost.

This copying setup uses a sheet of white perspex as a diffuser. Also essential are a blower for dust,
a torch to illuminate the negative/slide for focusing and a spirit level to make sure everything is parallel.


Luminous Landscape published a very good article titled Scannerless Digital Capture and Processing of Negative Film Photographs by Mark Segal and Todd Shaner in November of 2014. Looks to be well worth a read.

Dedicated devices

Many devices are becoming available that resemble hand slide viewers, the idea being that you feed in a strip of negatives and record them onto a memory card or PC hard disk. Remember that the quality of the output from these devices is very much dependent on the quality (and size) of the sensor used in the device and the quality of the optics (which may be akin to a digital Point-and-shoot camera): they are often cheap for a reason and it might be advisable to test before purchase.

Comparisons

Nb: 6n= 6x35mm negatives, 4s=4x35mm Slides, 4m=4 medium format negatives: Guide prices are based on UK eBay and retail in early 2014, prices will vary, but you should get an idea of relative costs). Although the DS IV is supposed to include scratch removal, it is not accessible with the current versions of VueScan, so you might need to seek out versions of the original Dimage software (something I've not been able to do so far).

Observations

    You can get pretty good results with the cheapest dedicated film scanners – if you have extra money to spend it might be an idea to spend it on currently supported software like VuScan or Silverfast.

    If you are planning to scan any colour work, some form of IR scratch removal is worth paying a little extra for.

    Autofocus is valuable. One review article rates the Canon 9000F as only actually resolving 1700lpi, despite its high quoted resolution - this may be due to the image being out of focus.

    The highest spec film scanners are expensive, but they seem to hold their value.

    Scanning to exploit the extra IQ of medium format is expensive.



Edited by Bob J - 30 January 2016 at 10:15
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10 March 2014 at 23:56
Comparison of cheap film scanner (Minolta Dimage Scan Dual II), cheap flatbed (Epson Perfection v350) and copying via camera (Sony a99 & 100 macro) - Now updated to include a comparison with a Minolta Dimage Scan elite 5400 (many thanks to Xavier for the loan of film and slide holders to make this comparison possible)

Comparison of muli-pass scans from DSII and v350 taken via VueScan with a camera shot.

Whole picture:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


Histograms:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


100% crops:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


Single-pass scans from Dual Scan II and Epson v350 compared to camera copies

Whole negative:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


Histograms:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


Crops:

Minolta Scan Dual II


Konica Minolta Scan Dual IV


Minolta Scan Elite 5400


Sony a99 & 100 Macro


Epson Perfection v350


Exposure:
Note that, straight out of the box, the Scan Dual appears to be exposing for highlights while the Scan Elite is giving a wider range of tones and the Epson seems to be exposing for the shadows; not too much of a problem as both are RAW files and probably contain a reasonable amount of headroom, plus you can adjust exposure at the time of the scan to favour shadows or highlights. The results from the camera are quite impressive, but a bit noisy in the shadows (ISO 800) when viewed at 100%.

Sharpness:
The AF of the Minoltas seems to be a big advantage here - with even the Scan Dual cancelling out the extra resolution of the Epson - however other flatbeds might have better focus.



Edited by Bob J - 30 January 2016 at 10:21
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 March 2014 at 09:51
Comments and contributions to this ongoing article are welcome.

It would be particularly good to get samples from some high-end flatbeds esp in comparison to high-end film scanners.

(I'm interested to see if putting this up now has any adverse effect on the speculative bids I've made on some film scanners on ebay)
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Post Options Post Options   Quote AudioDoc Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 March 2014 at 16:46
Thank you, Bob!

It seems you have spent a lot of time and effort in putting this article together! It is very much appreciated and hopefully it will answer many questions Dyxum forum members may have on digitizing negatives and slides.

More good scanner reviews can be found here: Shutterbug Magazine Scanner and Printer reviews

I'm not real familiar with Ken Rockwell, but he seems a little wacky. Is he always like that?

I'm also not well acquainted with Vuescan. The Camera Raw Lab illustrations are from Vuescan?

Thank you again!

Regards,

Kelly



Edited by AudioDoc - 12 March 2014 at 20:00
 



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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 March 2014 at 17:06
Thank you Kelly - I've added in the link to the shutterbug reviews.

Ken Rockwell seems to be an acquired taste - however there is quite a bit of valuable information along with the opinion...

The 'camera RAW' screenshots are not VueScan - they are PSP x6 - it was the easiest way of showing a reasonable sized histogram for each.

As with any of these things, I can only write with any authority about the stuff I actually have used, but I'm keen to get more info on Silverfast and other bits of kit to fill the article out a bit more.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote rovhazman Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18 March 2014 at 12:27
I used to have Epson V750-M (flatbed scanner) and Nikon CoolScan 5000 ED (dedicated scanner). Now I have Nikon CoolScan 9000 ED.

I don't think I can have a fair comparison between the flatbed and the dedicated scanner. I feel that I've never managed to get the best out of the flatbed scanner due to 2 main reasons: 1) I couldn't keep the negatives (especially medium format) flat, 2) I couldn't get good results with the software (SilverFast and VueScan). With the Nikon scanner it is much easier to keep the negatives flat and I think I have a good control using the Nikon software.
I will try to see if I can find frames that were scanned with both scanners and I will post the comparison, but again, the main differences are going to be my technique rather than the scanners. On the other hand, it brings up one advantage of dedicated scanner - easier to keep negatives flat...
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Post Options Post Options   Quote scovell001 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02 May 2014 at 11:19
Hi Bob J - well done for an excellently written article - the DSLR set up shows really well what can be done on a budget.

I have an Imacon 949 (these scanners seem to be missing from the list) - if you'd like to send me those 2 images - I'd be happy to scan them at 8000dpi so you can experience what a 'real' drum scanner can achieve.

www.ianscovell.com
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Snegren Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 June 2014 at 12:31
Thanks for your valuable information Bob.

Without knowing this thread existed and without giving it an in-depth evaluation I bought a Canon Canoscan 9000F mk II (reasonable reviews, good value for money). I'll use it to scan 35 mm film (positive and negative) for posting in Dyxum Film Challenges.

At 2.5 kg it turned out a fair bit heftier than expected. looks and feels well made. The various holders for film work well but the 35 mm negatives are only supported at the perforated sides and I can imagine flatness is an issue. I am thinking about DIY film support improvements.

That brings me to scanner software. Non-intuitive interface, meaningless icons. Found out how to make it scan 3200 dpi TIFF (48 bit colour, 16 bit B&W) and left it at that. Ignoring warnings about how 100+ MB file size could crash your computer it scanned without problems to 15 MB files.

A bit underwhelmed about the 1st film (B&W) scanned. Didn't know what to expect. After rescanning with better light adjustment (also here the canon software has dubious interface), dust removal in LR4 and resizing to 1024 wide they look OK.      
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26 August 2014 at 10:12
Just a note to say I recently acquired a Scan Dual III, so may be adding some examples - please feel free to give your own view on film scanners that you may have experience of - if you can post comparison scans, then all the better.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote Bob J Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 November 2014 at 12:36
I've updated the above to include links to Luminous Landscapes' Scannerless Digital Capture and Processing of Negative Film Photographs by Mark Segal and Todd Shaner in November of 2014. Looks to be well worth a read.
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Post Options Post Options   Quote AudioDoc Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 November 2014 at 14:24
Thank you, Bob!
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Post Options Post Options   Quote mirthseeker Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 February 2015 at 04:47
Mark Segal has now published The Epson V850 Pro Scanner in Context in The Luminous Landscape. He has compared the new Epson to older scanners, (e.g. Epson V750, Plustek OF120, Nikon 5000, Nikon 9000, Imacon, Minolta 5400) in an 89 page PDF which makes for interesting reading.
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